Answered By: Ron Wirtz
Last Updated: Sep 04, 2018     Views: 1134

There are a number of articles about Zophobas morio (also called Z. morio or Superworm). Most of the following are linked from our databases. You will have to use your EASI login and password. UNK librarians have collected additional articles, so if you need more, please use the e-mail link or ask at the Library Reference Desk.

Latney, L. T. V., Toddes, B. D., Wyre, N. R., Brown, D. C., Michel, K. E., & Briscoe, J. A. (2017). Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae). American journal of veterinary research, 78(2), 178-185.  (Discusses feeding of mealworms with wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed). (UNK does not have this article).

Dong Leung, Depo Yang, Zhuoxue Li, Zhimin Zhao, Jianping Chen, and Longping Zhu. Biodiesel from Zophobas morio Larva Oil: Process Optimization and FAME Characterization. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2012), 51 (2), 1036-1040.

Jabir, M., Razak, S. A., & Vikineswary, S. (2012). Nutritive potential and utilization of super worm (zophobas morio) meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) juvenile. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(24), 6592-6598. doi:

Invertebrate Pets and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Author(s): Michael C. Thomas
Source: The Florida Entomologist, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 39-44. Published by: Florida Entomological Society
Stable URL: 
(Discusses Z. morio as a potential agricultural pest).

Yi, L., Lakemond, C. M., Sagis, L. M., Eisner-Schadler, V., van Huis, A., & van Boekel, M. A. (2013). Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species. Food Chemistry, 1413341-3348. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.115.  Retrieved from:

Oonincx, D. G., & De Boer, I. J. (2012). Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans–a life cycle assessment. PloS one, 7(12), e51145. (Discusses feeding and environmental impact of mealworms for human food in comparison to chicken, pork and beef.)

Considerable research interest exists on the ability of Z. morio as a food source for animals or humans.  These articles may be located easily with a Google Scholar search.  Use the Google Scholar link from the UNK Library database list to recover many of these in full text form from UNK databases and other scholarly soures.  In China some research has been done on the ability of Z. morio to consumer various types of plastics as a food source. 

MIAO, S. J., & ZHANG, Y. L. (2010). Feeding and degradation effect on plastic of Zophobas morio [J]. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 4, 001.  (Note: UNK does not have this journal, which is in Chinese with some brief abstracts in English.  For example: "In this paper, we observed the feeding preference of Zophobas morio larvae on different plastic products, and the characteristic of the excrets of these insects fed with different plastic materials and products by TGA-SDTA and FTIR. IR peaks and thermal characteristics of the excrets of larvae feeding on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) showed significant changes by comparing with that of original PVC.").

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